Land use decisions are de facto implemented by different land users (e.g. subsistence-oriented, market-oriented). These are differing across countries and regions.
To politically influence land use decisions, an analysis of the relevant land uses, involved land users and their decisions is essential. Market-oriented land users are expected to be influencedby monetary incentives and market structures. Their decisions on forest maintenance versus alternative land uses may among others beguided by price incentives. Mainly subsistenceoriented land users are expected to build their livelihoods on diversified human, social, natural, physicaland financial resources („sustainable livelihoodcapitals“) to assure resilience (CHAMBERS, CONWAY,1991).
Here, different livelihood resources substitute merely monetary ones. At the same time, all land users are affected by national and sub-national laws and probably also by traditional norms.
The main influencing parameters for policy design can be deduced from the knowledge of drivers of land use decisions. Monetary policy instruments (e.g. incentive and compensation payments from PES or REDD+) can be effective if a land user is acting according to financial influences. In this case, the adequate amount for compensation payments needs to be assessed. Subsistence-orientedland users, however, will be guided mainly by securing the nutritional basis and other existential resources.